Publications

15 Publications visible to you, out of a total of 15

Abstract (Expand)

When modeling a detoxifying organ function, an important component is the impact of flow on the metabolism of a compound of interest carried by the blood. We here study the effects of red blood cells (such as the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect and plasma skimming) on blood flow in typical microcirculatory components such as tubes, bifurcations and entire networks, with particular emphasis on the liver as important representative of detoxifying organs. In one of the plasma skimming models, under certain conditions, oscillations between states are found and analyzed in a methodical study to identify their causes and influencing parameters. The flow solution obtained is then used to define the velocity at which a compound would be transported. A convection-reaction equation is studied to simulate the transport of a compound in blood and its uptake by the surrounding cells. Different types of signal sharpness have to be handled depending on the application to address different temporal compound concentration profiles. To permit executing the studied models numerically stable and accurate, we here extend existing transport schemes to handle converging bifurcations, and more generally multi-furcations. We study the accuracy of different numerical schemes as well as the effect of reactions and of the network itself on the bolus shape. Even though this study is guided by applications in liver micro-architecture, the proposed methodology is general and can readily be applied to other capillary network geometries, hence to other organs or to bioengineered network designs.

Authors: N. Boissier, D. Drasdo, I. E. Vignon-Clementel

Date Published: 29th Nov 2020

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

Small‐molecule flux in tissue‐microdomains is essential for organ function, but knowledge of this process is scant due to the lack of suitable methods. We developed two independent techniques that allow the quantification of advection (flow) and diffusion in individual bile canaliculi and in interlobular bile ducts of intact livers in living mice, namely Fluorescence Loss After Photoactivation (FLAP) and Intravital Arbitrary Region Image Correlation Spectroscopy (IVARICS). The results challenge the prevailing ‘mechano‐osmotic’ theory of canalicular bile flow. After active transport across hepatocyte membranes bile acids are transported in the canaliculi primarily by diffusion. Only in the interlobular ducts, diffusion is augmented by regulatable advection. Photoactivation of fluorescein bis‐(5‐carboxymethoxy‐2‐nitrobenzyl)‐ether (CMNB‐caged fluorescein) in entire lobules demonstrated the establishment of diffusive gradients in the bile canalicular network and the sink function of interlobular ducts. In contrast to the bile canalicular network, vectorial transport was detected and quantified in the mesh of interlobular bile ducts. In conclusion, the liver consists of a diffusion dominated canalicular domain, where hepatocytes secrete small molecules and generate a concentration gradient and a flow‐augmented ductular domain, where regulated water influx creates unidirectional advection that augments the diffusive flux.

Authors: Nachiket Vartak, Georgia Guenther, Florian Joly, Amruta Damle‐Vartak, Gudrun Wibbelt, Jörns Fickel, Simone Jörs, Brigitte Begher‐Tibbe, Adrian Friebel, Kasimir Wansing, Ahmed Ghallab, Marie Rosselin, Noemie Boissier, Irene Vignon‐Clementel, Christian Hedberg, Fabian Geisler, Heribert Hofer, Peter Jansen, Stefan Hoehme, Dirk Drasdo, Jan G. Hengstler

Date Published: 19th Jun 2020

Publication Type: Journal

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Authors: Stefan Hoehme, Rolf Gebhardt, JG Hengstler, D. Drasdo

Date Published: 18th May 2020

Publication Type: Misc

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Authors: Adrian Friebel, Tim Johann, Dirk Drasdo, Stefan Hoehme

Date Published: 18th May 2020

Publication Type: Misc

Abstract

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Authors: Paul Van Liedekerke, Johannes Neitsch, Tim Johann, Enrico Warmt, Ismael Gonzàlez-Valverde, Stefan Hoehme, Steffen Grosser, Josef Kaes, Dirk Drasdo

Date Published: 1st Feb 2020

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

Little is known about how liver fibrosis influences lobular zonation. To address this question, we used three mouse models of liver fibrosis, repeated CCl4 administration for 2, 6 and 12 months to induce pericentral damage, as well as bile duct ligation (21 days) and mdr2−/− mice to study periportal fibrosis. Analyses were performed by RNA-sequencing, immunostaining of zonated proteins and image analysis. RNA-sequencing demonstrated a significant enrichment of pericentral genes among genes downregulated by CCl4; vice versa, periportal genes were enriched among the upregulated genes. Immunostaining showed an almost complete loss of pericentral proteins, such as cytochrome P450 enzymes and glutamine synthetase, while periportal proteins, such as arginase 1 and CPS1 became expressed also in pericentral hepatocytes. This pattern of fibrosis-associated ‘periportalization’ was consistently observed in all three mouse models and led to complete resistance to hepatotoxic doses of acetaminophen (200 mg/kg). Characterization of the expression response identified the inflammatory pathways TGFβ, NFκB, TNFα, and transcription factors NFKb1, Stat1, Hif1a, Trp53, and Atf1 among those activated, while estrogen-associated pathways, Hnf4a and Hnf1a, were decreased. In conclusion, liver fibrosis leads to strong alterations of lobular zonation, where the pericentral region adopts periportal features. Beside adverse consequences, periportalization supports adaptation to repeated doses of hepatotoxic compounds.

Authors: Ahmed Ghallab, Maiju Myllys, Christian Holland, Ayham Zaza, Walaa Murad, Reham Hassan, Yasser A Ahmed, Tahany Abbas, Eman Abdelrahim, Kai Markus Schneider, Madlen Matz-Soja, Joerg Reinders, Rolf Gebhardt, Theresa Hildegard Wirtz, Maximilian Hatting, Dirk Drasdo, Julio Saez-Rodriguez, Christian Trautwein, Jan Hengstler

Date Published: 1st Dec 2019

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Small-molecule flux in tissue-microdomains is essential for organ function, but knowledge of this process is scant due to the lack of suitable methods applicable to live animals. We developed a methodology based on dynamic and correlative imaging for quantitative intravital flux analysis. Application to the liver, challenged the prevailing ‘mechano-osmotic’ theory of canalicular bile flow. After active transport across hepatocyte membranes bile salts are transported in the canaliculi primarily by diffusion. Only in the interlobular ducts, diffusion is augmented by regulatable advection. We corroborate these observations with in silico simulations and pan-species comparisons of lobule size. This study demonstrates a flux mechanism, where the energy invested in transmembrane transport entropically dissipates in a sub-micron scale vessel network.

Authors: Nachiket Vartak, Georgia Guenther, Florian Joly, Amruta Damle-Vartak, Gudrun Wibbelt, Jörns Fickel, Simone Jörs, Brigitte Begher-Tibbe, Adrian Friebel, Kasimir Wansing, Ahmed Ghallab, Marie Rosselin, Noemie Boissier, Irene Vignon-Clementel, Christian Hedberg, Fabian Geisler, Heribert Hofer, Peter Jansen, Stefan Hoehme, Dirk Drasdo, Jan G. Hengstler

Date Published: 26th Sep 2019

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract

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Authors: S Hammad, J Zhao, Y Yin, A Zaza, D Drasdo, JG Hengstler, S Dooley

Date Published: 2019

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract

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Authors: Ahmed Ghallab, Ute Hofmann, Selahaddin Sezgin, Nachiket Vartak, Reham Hassan, Ayham Zaza, Patricio Godoy, Kai Markus Schneider, Georgia Guenther, Yasser A Ahmed, Aya A Abbas, Verena Keitel, Lars Kuepfer, Steven Dooley, Frank Lammert, Christian Trautwein, Michael Spiteller, Dirk Drasdo, Alan F Hofmann, Peter L M Jansen, Jan G Hengstler, Raymond Reif

Date Published: 13th Aug 2018

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract

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Authors: Stefan Hoehme, Francois Bertaux, William Weens, Bettina Grasl-Kraupp, Jan G. Hengstler, Dirk Drasdo

Date Published: 28th Dec 2017

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Cirrhosis represents the end-stage of any persistent chronically active liver disease. It is characterized by the complete replacement of normal liver tissue by fibrosis, regenerative nodules, and complete fibrotic vascularized septa. The resulting angioarchitectural distortion contributes to an increasing intrahepatic vascular resistance, impeding liver perfusion and leading to portal hypertension. To date, knowledge on the dynamically evolving pathological changes of the hepatic vasculature during cirrhogenesis remains limited. More specifically, detailed anatomical data on the vascular adaptations during disease development is lacking. To address this need, we studied the 3D architecture of the hepatic vasculature during induction of cirrhogenesis in a rat model. Cirrhosis was chemically induced with thioacetamide (TAA). At predefined time points, the hepatic vasculature was fixed and visualized using a combination of vascular corrosion casting and deep tissue microscopy. Three-dimensional reconstruction and data-fitting enabled cirrhogenic features to extracted at multiple scales, portraying the impact of cirrhosis on the hepatic vasculature. At the macrolevel, we noticed that regenerative nodules severely compressed pliant venous vessels from 12 weeks of TAA intoxication onwards. Especially hepatic veins were highly affected by this compression, with collapsed vessel segments severely reducing perfusion capabilities. At the microlevel, we discovered zone-specific sinusoidal degeneration, with sinusoids located near the surface being more affected than those in the middle of a liver lobe. Our data shed light on and quantify the evolving angioarchitecture during cirrhogenesis. These findings may prove helpful for future targeted invasive interventions.

Authors: G. Peeters, C. Debbaut, A. Friebel, P. Cornillie, W. H. De Vos, K. Favere, I. Vander Elst, T. Vandecasteele, T. Johann, L. Van Hoorebeke, D. Monbaliu, D. Drasdo, S. Hoehme, W. Laleman, P. Segers

Date Published: 4th Dec 2017

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are a recent toxicological construct that connects, in a formalized, transparent and quality-controlled way, mechanistic information to apical endpoints for regulatory purposes. AOP links a molecular initiating event (MIE) to the adverse outcome (AO) via key events (KE), in a way specified by key event relationships (KER). Although this approach to formalize mechanistic toxicological information only started in 2010, over 200 AOPs have already been established. At this stage, new requirements arise, such as the need for harmonization and re-assessment, for continuous updating, as well as for alerting about pitfalls, misuses and limits of applicability. In this review, the history of the AOP concept and its most prominent strengths are discussed, including the advantages of a formalized approach, the systematic collection of weight of evidence, the linkage of mechanisms to apical end points, the examination of the plausibility of epidemiological data, the identification of critical knowledge gaps and the design of mechanistic test methods. To prepare the ground for a broadened and appropriate use of AOPs, some widespread misconceptions are explained. Moreover, potential weaknesses and shortcomings of the current AOP rule set are addressed (1) to facilitate the discussion on its further evolution and (2) to better define appropriate vs. less suitable application areas. Exemplary toxicological studies are presented to discuss the linearity assumptions of AOP, the management of event modifiers and compensatory mechanisms, and whether a separation of toxicodynamics from toxicokinetics including metabolism is possible in the framework of pathway plasticity. Suggestions on how to compromise between different needs of AOP stakeholders have been added. A clear definition of open questions and limitations is provided to encourage further progress in the field.

Authors: M. Leist, A. Ghallab, R. Graepel, R. Marchan, R. Hassan, S. H. Bennekou, A. Limonciel, M. Vinken, S. Schildknecht, T. Waldmann, E. Danen, B. van Ravenzwaay, H. Kamp, I. Gardner, P. Godoy, F. Y. Bois, A. Braeuning, R. Reif, F. Oesch, D. Drasdo, S. Hohme, M. Schwarz, T. Hartung, T. Braunbeck, J. Beltman, H. Vrieling, F. Sanz, A. Forsby, D. Gadaleta, C. Fisher, J. Kelm, D. Fluri, G. Ecker, B. Zdrazil, A. Terron, P. Jennings, B. van der Burg, S. Dooley, A. H. Meijer, E. Willighagen, M. Martens, C. Evelo, E. Mombelli, O. Taboureau, A. Mantovani, B. Hardy, B. Koch, S. Escher, C. van Thriel, C. Cadenas, D. Kroese, B. van de Water, J. G. Hengstler

Date Published: 19th Oct 2017

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

The intricate (micro)vascular architecture of the liver has not yet been fully unravelled. Although current models are often idealized simplifications of the complex anatomical reality, correct morphological information is instrumental for scientific and clinical purposes. Previously, both vascular corrosion casting (VCC) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) have been separately used to study the hepatic vasculature. Nevertheless, these techniques still face a number of challenges such as dual casting in VCC and limited imaging depths for IHC. We have optimized both techniques and combined their complementary strengths to develop a framework for multilevel reconstruction of the hepatic circulation in the rat. The VCC and micro-CT scanning protocol was improved by enabling dual casting, optimizing the contrast agent concentration, and adjusting the viscosity of the resin (PU4ii). IHC was improved with an optimized clearing technique (CUBIC) that extended the imaging depth for confocal microscopy more than five-fold. Using in-house developed software (DeLiver), the vascular network - in both VCC and IHC datasets - was automatically segmented and/or morphologically analysed. Our methodological framework allows 3D reconstruction and quantification of the hepatic circulation, ranging from the major blood vessels down to the intertwined and interconnected sinusoids. We believe that the presented framework will have value beyond studies of the liver, and will facilitate a better understanding of various parenchymal organs in general, in physiological and pathological circumstances.

Authors: Geert Peeters, Charlotte Debbaut, Wim Laleman, Adrian Friebel, Diethard Monbaliu, Ingrid Vander Elst, Jan R Detrez, Tim Vandecasteele, Tim Johann, Thomas De Schryver, Luc Van Hoorebeke, Kasper Favere, Jonas Verbeke, Dirk Drasdo, Stefan Hoehme, Patrick Segers, Pieter Cornillie, Winnok H De Vos

Date Published: 28th Dec 2016

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

In this chapter, we illustrate how three-dimensional liver tissue models can be created from experimental image modalities by utilizing a well-established processing chain of experiments, microscopic imaging, image processing, image analysis and model construction. We describe how key features of liver tissue architecture are quantified and translated into model parameterizations, and show how a systematic iteration of experiments and model simulations often leads to a better understanding of biological phenomena in systems biology and systems medicine.

Authors: S. Hoehme, A. Friebel, S. Hammad, D. Drasdo, J. G. Hengstler

Date Published: 11th Nov 2016

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recently, spatial-temporal/metabolic mathematical models have been established that allow the simulation of metabolic processes in tissues. We applied these models to decipherer ammonia detoxification mechanisms in the liver. METHODS: An integrated metabolic-spatial-temporal model was used to generate hypotheses of ammonia metabolism. Predicted mechanisms were validated using time-resolved analyses of nitrogen metabolism, activity analyses, immunostaining and gene expression after induction of liver damage in mice. Moreover, blood from the portal vein, liver vein and mixed venous blood was analyzed in a time dependent manner. RESULTS: Modeling revealed an underestimation of ammonia consumption after liver damage when only the currently established mechanisms of ammonia detoxification were simulated. By iterative cycles of modeling and experiments, the reductive amidation of alpha-ketoglutarate (α-KG) via glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) was identified as the lacking component. GDH is released from damaged hepatocytes into the blood where it consumes ammonia to generate glutamate, thereby providing systemic protection against hyperammonemia. This mechanism was exploited therapeutically in a mouse model of hyperammonemia by injecting GDH together with optimized doses of cofactors. Intravenous injection of GDH (720 U/kg), α-KG (280 mg/kg) and NADPH (180 mg/kg) reduced the elevated blood ammonia concentrations (>200 μM) to levels close to normal within only 15 min. CONCLUSION: If successfully translated to patients the GDH-based therapy might provide a less aggressive therapeutic alternative for patients with severe hyperammonemia.

Authors: Ahmed Ghallab, Géraldine Cellière, Sebastian G. Henkel, Dominik Driesch, Stefan Hoehme, Ute Hofmann, Sebastian Zellmer, Patricio Godoy, Agapios Sachinidis, Meinolf Blaszkewicz, Raymond Reif, Rosemarie Marchan, Lars Kuepfer, Dieter Häussinger, Dirk Drasdo, Rolf Gebhardt, Jan G. Hengstler

Date Published: 1st Apr 2016

Publication Type: Not specified

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