Publications

Abstract (Expand)

PURPOSE: Evaluation of [(68)Ga]NODAGA-duramycin as a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer of cell death for whole-body detection of chemotherapy-induced organ toxicity. PROCEDURES: Tracer specificity of Ga-68 labeled NODAGA-duramycin was determined in vitro using competitive binding experiments. Organ uptake was analyzed in untreated and doxorubicin, busulfan, and cisplatin-treated mice 2 h after intravenous injection of [(68)Ga]NODAGA-duramycin. In vivo data were validated by immunohistology and blood parameters. RESULTS: In vitro experiments confirmed specific binding of [(68)Ga]NODAGA-duramycin. Organ toxicities were detected successfully using [(68)Ga]NODAGA-duramycin PET/X-ray computed tomography (CT) and confirmed by immunohistochemistry and blood parameter analysis. Organ toxicities in livers and kidneys showed similar trends in PET/CT and immunohistology. Busulfan and cisplatin-related organ toxicities in heart, liver, and lungs were detected earlier by PET/CT than by blood parameters and immunohistology. CONCLUSION: [(68)Ga]NODAGA-duramycin PET/CT was successfully applied to non-invasively detect chemotherapy-induced organ toxicity with high sensitivity in mice. It, therefore, represents a promising alternative to standard toxicological analyses with a high translational potential.

Authors: A. Rix, N. I. Drude, Anna Mrugalla, F. Baskaya, K. Y. Pak, B. Gray, H. J. Kaiser, R. H. Tolba, E. Fiegle, Wiltrud Lederle, F. M. Mottaghy, F. Kiessling

Date Published: 8th Aug 2019

Journal: Mol Imaging Biol

Abstract (Expand)

Liver inflammation and macrophage infiltration are critical steps in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver to the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Bone morphogenetic protein9 is a cytokine involved in the regulation of chemokines and lipogenesis. However, the function of bone morphogenetic protein9 in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is still unknown. The present study hypothesized that bone morphogenetic protein9 may contribute to steatohepatitis in mice fed a methionine choline deficiency diet (MCD). C57BL/6 mice overexpressing bone morphogenetic protein9 and control mice were fed the MCD diet for 4 weeks. Liver tissue and serum samples were obtained for subsequent measurements. Bone morphogenetic protein9 overexpression exacerbated steatohepatitis in mice on the MCD diet, as indicated by liver histopathology, increased serum alanine aminotransferase activity, aspartate transaminase activity, hepatic inflammatory gene expression and M1 macrophage recruitment. Although bone morphogenetic protein9 overexpression did not affect the expression of profibrogenic genes, including Collagen I (alpha)1 or matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9, it did upregulate the expression of transforming growth factorbeta and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, and downregulated the expression of MMP2. The above results indicate that bone morphogenetic protein9 exerts a proinflammatory role in MCD dietinduced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

Authors: Q. Li, B. Liu, K. Breitkopf-Heinlein, H. Weng, Yixin Jiang, P. Dong, Steven Dooley, K. Xu, H. Ding

Date Published: 20th Jul 2019

Journal: Mol Med Rep

Abstract (Expand)

Liver fibrosis is an advanced liver disease condition, which could progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. To date, there is no direct approved antifibrotic therapy, and current treatment is mainly the removal of the causative factor. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta is a master profibrogenic cytokine and a promising target to treat fibrosis. However, TGF-beta has broad biological functions and its inhibition induces non-desirable side effects, which override therapeutic benefits. Therefore, understanding the pleiotropic effects of TGF-beta and its upstream and downstream regulatory mechanisms will help to design better TGF-beta based therapeutics. Here, we summarize recent discoveries and milestones on the TGF-beta signaling pathway related to liver fibrosis and hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, emphasizing research of the last five years. This comprises impact of TGF-beta on liver fibrogenesis related biological processes, such as senescence, metabolism, reactive oxygen species generation, epigenetics, circadian rhythm, epithelial mesenchymal transition, and endothelial-mesenchymal transition. We also describe the influence of the microenvironment on the response of HSC to TGF-beta. Finally, we discuss new approaches to target the TGF-beta pathway, name current clinical trials, and explain promises and drawbacks that deserve to be adequately addressed.

Authors: B. Dewidar, C. Meyer, Steven Dooley, A. N. Meindl-Beinker

Date Published: 11th Nov 2019

Journal: Cells

Abstract

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Authors: Peter Jansen, Kai Breuhahn, Andreas Teufel, Steven Dooley

Date Published: 22nd Nov 2019

Journal: Front. Physiol.

Abstract

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Authors: Seddik Hammad, W Fan, T Liu, W Chen, K Gould, T Longerich, I Haußer-Siller, J Hou, J Jia, B Sun, Steven Dooley

Date Published: 2019

Journal: Not specified

Abstract

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Authors: Rolf Reiter, Heiko Tzschätzsch, Florian Schwahofer, Matthias Haas, Christian Bayerl, Marion Muche, Dieter Klatt, Shreyan Majumdar, Meltem Uyanik, Bernd Hamm, Jürgen Braun, Ingolf Sack, Patrick Asbach

Date Published: 11th Nov 2019

Journal: Eur Radiol

Abstract

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Authors: Sarah Keller, Julius Chapiro, Julia Brangsch, Carolin Reimann, Federico Collettini, Ingolf Sack, Lynn Jeanette Savic, Bernd Hamm, Shraga Nahum Goldberg, Marcus Makowski

Date Published: 12th Nov 2019

Journal: J Magn Reson Imaging

Abstract

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Authors: Nikolaus Berndt, Andreas Patzak, Hermann‐Georg Holzhütter

Date Published: 9th Aug 2019

Journal: Acta Physiol

Abstract

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Authors: Nikolaus Berndt, Antje Egners, Guido Mastrobuoni, Olga Vvedenskaya, Athanassios Fragoulis, Aurélien Dugourd, Sascha Bulik, Matthias Pietzke, Chris Bielow, Rob van Gassel, Steven W. Olde Damink, Merve Erdem, Julio Saez-Rodriguez, Hermann-Georg Holzhütter, Stefan Kempa, Thorsten Cramer

Date Published: 10th Dec 2019

Journal: Br J Cancer

Abstract (Expand)

Patients with increased liver stiffness have a higher risk of developing cancer, however, the role of fluid-solid tissue interactions and their contribution to liver tumor malignancy remains elusive. Tomoelastography is a novel imaging method for mapping quantitatively the solid-fluid tissue properties of soft tissues in vivo. It provides high resolution and thus has clear clinical applications. In this work we used tomoelastography in 77 participants, with a total of 141 focal liver lesions of different etiologies, to investigate the contributions of tissue stiffness and fluidity to the malignancy of liver tumors. Shear-wave speed (c) as surrogate for tissue stiffness and phase-angle (phi) of the complex shear modulus reflecting tissue fluidity were abnormally high in malignant tumors and allowed them to be distinguished from nontumorous liver tissue with high accuracy [c: AUC = 0.88 with 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.83-0.94; phi: AUC = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.92-0.98]. Benign focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenoma could be distinguished from malignant lesions on the basis of tumor stiffness (AUC = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.72-0.98; sensitivity = 94%, 95% CI = 89-100; and specificity = 85%, 95% CI = 62-100), tumor fluidity (AUC = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77-0.96; sensitivity = 83%, 95% CI = 72-93; and specificity = 92%, 95% CI = 77-100) and liver stiffness (AUC = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.74-0.94; sensitivity = 72%, 95% CI = 59-83; and specificity = 88%, 95% CI = 69-100), but not on the basis of liver fluidity. Together, hepatic malignancies are characterized by stiff, yet fluid tissue properties, whereas surrounding nontumorous tissue is dominated by solid properties. Tomoelastography can inform noninvasively on the malignancy of suspicious liver lesions by differentiating between benign and malignant lesions with high sensitivity based on stiffness and with high specificity based on fluidity. SIGNIFICANCE: Solid-fluid tissue properties measured by tomoelastography can distinguish malignant from benign masses with high accuracy and provide quantitative noninvasive imaging biomarkers for liver tumors.

Authors: Mehrgan Shahryari, H. Tzschatzsch, Jing Guo, S. R. Marticorena Garcia, G. Boning, U. Fehrenbach, L. Stencel, P. Asbach, B. Hamm, J. A. Kas, J. Braun, T. Denecke, I. Sack

Date Published: 15th Nov 2019

Journal: Cancer Res

Abstract (Expand)

Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of the acute abdomen syndrome and can be treated either surgically or conservatively with antibiotics. This case demonstrates the first time use of mechanics based MRI by tomoelastography with generation of quantitative maps of tissue stiffness (shear wave speed in m/s) and tissue fluidity (shear modulus loss angle, in rad) in a case of uncomplicated acute appendicitis with antibiotic treatment at (i) baseline, (ii) the end of treatment (EOT) and (iii) the 10 day follow-up after EOT. Baseline maps of stiffness and fluidity revealed to the naked eye the extent of intestinal inflammation by markedly increased values of stiffness and fluidity (2.56+/-0.12 m/s, 1.37+/-0.24 rad) compared with normal values, indicating the immediate response to antibiotic treatment at EOT (1.47+/-0.28 m/s, 0.80+/-0.11 rad) and persistent normalisation at follow-up (1.54+/-0.22 m/s, 0.92+/-0.22 rad). Tomoelastography is a non-invasive, quantitative imaging method for mechanics based characterisation and follow-up of acute appendicitis.

Authors: S. R. Marticorena Garcia, B. Hamm, I. Sack

Date Published: 26th Aug 2019

Journal: BMJ Case Rep

Abstract (Expand)

Globally, primary and secondary liver cancer is one of the most common cancer types, accounting 8.2% of deaths worldwide in 2018. One of the key strategies to improve the patient's prognosis is the early diagnosis, when liver function is still preserved. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the typical wash-in/wash-out pattern in conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reaches a sensitivity of 60% and specificity of 96-100%. However, in recent years functional MRI sequences such as hepatocellular-specific gadolinium-based dynamic-contrast enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) have been demonstrated to improve the evaluation of treatment success and thus the therapeutic decision-making and the patient's outcome. In the preclinical research setting, the VX2 liver rabbit tumor, which once originated from a virus-induced anaplastic squamous cell carcinoma, has played a longstanding role in experimental interventional oncology. Especially the high tumor vascularity allows assessing the treatment response of locoregional interventions such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and transcatheter arterial embolization (TACE). Functional MRI has been used to monitor the tumor growth and viability following interventional treatment. Besides promising results, a comprehensive overview of functional MRI sequences used so far in different treatment setting is lacking, thus lowering the comparability of study results. This review offers a comprehensive overview of study protocols, results, and limitations of quantitative MRI sequences applied to evaluate the treatment outcome of VX2 hepatic tumor models, thus generating a unique basis for future MRI studies and potential translation into the clinical setting. Level of Evidence: 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2019.

Authors: S. Keller, J. Chapiro, J. Brangsch, C. Reimann, F. Collettini, I. Sack, L. J. Savic, B. Hamm, S. N. Goldberg, M. Makowski

Date Published: 12th Nov 2019

Journal: J Magn Reson Imaging

Abstract (Expand)

Computational systems biology involves integrating heterogeneous datasets in order to generate models. These models can assist with understanding and prediction of biological phenomena. Generating datasets and integrating them into models involves a wide range of scientific expertise. As a result these datasets are often collected by one set of researchers, and exchanged with others researchers for constructing the models. For this process to run smoothly the data and models must be FAIR-findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable. In order for data and models to be FAIR they must be structured in consistent and predictable ways, and described sufficiently for other researchers to understand them. Furthermore, these data and models must be shared with other researchers, with appropriately controlled sharing permissions, before and after publication. In this chapter we explore the different data and model standards that assist with structuring, describing, and sharing. We also highlight the popular standards and sharing databases within computational systems biology.

Authors: N. J. Stanford, M. Scharm, P. D. Dobson, Martin Golebiewski, M. Hucka, V. B. Kothamachu, D. Nickerson, S. Owen, J. Pahle, U. Wittig, D. Waltemath, C. Goble, P. Mendes, J. Snoep

Date Published: 12th Oct 2019

Journal: Methods Mol Biol

Abstract (Expand)

Little is known about how liver fibrosis influences lobular zonation. To address this question, we used three mouse models of liver fibrosis, repeated CCl4 administration for 2, 6 and 12 months to induce pericentral damage, as well as bile duct ligation (21 days) and mdr2−/− mice to study periportal fibrosis. Analyses were performed by RNA-sequencing, immunostaining of zonated proteins and image analysis. RNA-sequencing demonstrated a significant enrichment of pericentral genes among genes downregulated by CCl4; vice versa, periportal genes were enriched among the upregulated genes. Immunostaining showed an almost complete loss of pericentral proteins, such as cytochrome P450 enzymes and glutamine synthetase, while periportal proteins, such as arginase 1 and CPS1 became expressed also in pericentral hepatocytes. This pattern of fibrosis-associated ‘periportalization’ was consistently observed in all three mouse models and led to complete resistance to hepatotoxic doses of acetaminophen (200 mg/kg). Characterization of the expression response identified the inflammatory pathways TGFβ, NFκB, TNFα, and transcription factors NFKb1, Stat1, Hif1a, Trp53, and Atf1 among those activated, while estrogen-associated pathways, Hnf4a and Hnf1a, were decreased. In conclusion, liver fibrosis leads to strong alterations of lobular zonation, where the pericentral region adopts periportal features. Beside adverse consequences, periportalization supports adaptation to repeated doses of hepatotoxic compounds.

Authors: Ahmed Ghallab, Maiju Myllys, Christian Holland, Ayham Zaza, Walaa Murad, Reham Hassan, Yasser A Ahmed, Tahany Abbas, Eman Abdelrahim, Annika Schneider, Madlen Matz-Soja, Joerg Reinders, Rolf Gebhardt, Theresa Hildegard Wirtz, Maximilian Hatting, Dirk Drasdo, Julio Saez-Rodriguez, Christian Trautwein, Jan Hengstler

Date Published: 1st Dec 2019

Journal: Cells

Abstract (Expand)

Early disease diagnosis is key to the effective treatment of diseases. Histopathological analysis of human biopsies is the gold standard to diagnose tissue alterations. However, this approach has low resolution and overlooks 3D (three-dimensional) structural changes resulting from functional alterations. Here, we applied multiphoton imaging, 3D digital reconstructions and computational simulations to generate spatially resolved geometrical and functional models of human liver tissue at different stages of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We identified a set of morphometric cellular and tissue parameters correlated with disease progression, and discover profound topological defects in the 3D bile canalicular (BC) network. Personalized biliary fluid dynamic simulations predicted an increased pericentral biliary pressure and micro-cholestasis, consistent with elevated cholestatic biomarkers in patients' sera. Our spatially resolved models of human liver tissue can contribute to high-definition medicine by identifying quantitative multiparametric cellular and tissue signatures to define disease progression and provide new insights into NAFLD pathophysiology.

Authors: Fabian Segovia Miranda, H. Morales-Navarrete, Michael Kücken, Vincent Moser, S. Seifert, U. Repnik, Fabian Rost, Mario Brosch, A. Hendricks, S. Hinz, C. Rocken, D. Lutjohann, Y. Kalaidzidis, Clemens Schafmayer, Lutz Brusch, Jochen Hampe, Marino Zerial

Date Published: 2nd Dec 2019

Journal: Nat Med

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