Publications

6 Publications visible to you, out of a total of 6

Abstract (Expand)

The mechanisms of organ size control remain poorly understood. A key question is how cells collectively sense the overall status of a tissue. We addressed this problem focusing on mouse liver regeneration. Using digital tissue reconstruction and quantitative image analysis, we found that the apical surface of hepatocytes forming the bile canalicular network expands concomitant with an increase in F‐actin and phospho‐myosin, to compensate an overload of bile acids. These changes are sensed by the Hippo transcriptional co‐activator YAP, which localizes to apical F‐actin‐rich regions and translocates to the nucleus in dependence of the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton. This mechanism tolerates moderate bile acid fluctuations under tissue homeostasis, but activates YAP in response to sustained bile acid overload. Using an integrated biophysical–biochemical model of bile pressure and Hippo signaling, we explained this behavior by the existence of a mechano‐sensory mechanism that activates YAP in a switch‐like manner. We propose that the apical surface of hepatocytes acts as a self‐regulatory mechano‐sensory system that responds to critical levels of bile acids as readout of tissue status.

Authors: Kirstin Meyer, Hernan Morales‐Navarrete, Sarah Seifert, Michaela Wilsch‐Braeuninger, Uta Dahmen, Elly M Tanaka, Lutz Brusch, Yannis Kalaidzidis, Marino Zerial

Date Published: 24th Feb 2020

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Research software has become a central asset in academic research. It optimizes existing and enables new research methods, implements and embeds research knowledge, and constitutes an essential research product in itself. Research software must be sustainable in order to understand, replicate, reproduce, and build upon existing research or conduct new research effectively. In other words, software must be available, discoverable, usable, and adaptable to new needs, both now and in the future. Research software therefore requires an environment that supports sustainability. Hence, a change is needed in the way research software development and maintenance are currently motivated, incentivized, funded, structurally and infrastructurally supported, and legally treated. Failing to do so will threaten the quality and validity of research. In this paper, we identify challenges for research software sustainability in Germany and beyond, in terms of motivation, selection, research software engineering personnel, funding, infrastructure, and legal aspects. Besides researchers, we specifically address political and academic decision-makers to increase awareness of the importance and needs of sustainable research software practices. In particular, we recommend strategies and measures to create an environment for sustainable research software, with the ultimate goal to ensure that software-driven research is valid, reproducible and sustainable, and that software is recognized as a first class citizen in research.

Authors: Hartwig Anzt, Felix Bach, Stephan Druskat, Frank Löffler, Axel Loewe, Bernhard Y. Renard, Gunnar Seemann, Alexander Struck, Elke Achhammer, Piush Aggarwal, Franziska Appel, Michael Bader, Lutz Brusch, Christian Busse, Gerasimos Chourdakis, Piotr Wojciech Dabrowski, Peter Ebert, Bernd Flemisch, Sven Friedl, Bernadette Fritzsch, Maximilian D. Funk, Volker Gast, Florian Goth, Jean-Noël Grad, Sibylle Hermann, Florian Hohmann, Stephan Janosch, Dominik Kutra, Jan Linxweiler, Thilo Muth, Wolfgang Peters-Kottig, Fabian Rack, Fabian H.C. Raters, Stephan Rave, Guido Reina, Malte Reißig, Timo Ropinski, Joerg Schaarschmidt, Heidi Seibold, Jan P. Thiele, Benjamin Uekermann, Stefan Unger, Rudolf Weeber

Date Published: 2020

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Early disease diagnosis is key to the effective treatment of diseases. Histopathological analysis of human biopsies is the gold standard to diagnose tissue alterations. However, this approach has low resolution and overlooks 3D (three-dimensional) structural changes resulting from functional alterations. Here, we applied multiphoton imaging, 3D digital reconstructions and computational simulations to generate spatially resolved geometrical and functional models of human liver tissue at different stages of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We identified a set of morphometric cellular and tissue parameters correlated with disease progression, and discover profound topological defects in the 3D bile canalicular (BC) network. Personalized biliary fluid dynamic simulations predicted an increased pericentral biliary pressure and micro-cholestasis, consistent with elevated cholestatic biomarkers in patients' sera. Our spatially resolved models of human liver tissue can contribute to high-definition medicine by identifying quantitative multiparametric cellular and tissue signatures to define disease progression and provide new insights into NAFLD pathophysiology.

Authors: F. Segovia-Miranda, H. Morales-Navarrete, M. Kucken, V. Moser, S. Seifert, U. Repnik, F. Rost, M. Brosch, A. Hendricks, S. Hinz, C. Rocken, D. Lutjohann, Y. Kalaidzidis, C. Schafmayer, L. Brusch, J. Hampe, M. Zerial

Date Published: 2nd Dec 2019

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

The secretion of osmolytes into a lumen and thereby caused osmotic water inflow can drive fluid flows in organs without a mechanical pump. Such fluids include saliva, sweat, pancreatic juice and bile. The effects of elevated fluid pressure and the associated mechanical limitations of organ function remain largely unknown since fluid pressure is difficult to measure inside tiny secretory channels in vivo. We consider the pressure profile of the coupled osmolyte-flow problem in a secretory channel with a closed tip and an open outlet. Importantly, the entire lateral boundary acts as a dynamic fluid source, the strength of which self-organizes through feedback from the emergent pressure solution itself. We derive analytical solutions and compare them to numerical simulations of the problem in three-dimensional space. The theoretical results reveal a phase boundary in a four-dimensional parameter space separating the commonly considered regime with steady flow all along the channel, here termed “wet-tip” regime, from a “dry-tip” regime suffering ceased flow downstream from the closed tip. We propose a relation between the predicted phase boundary and the onset of cholestasis, a pathological liver condition with reduced bile outflow. The phase boundary also sets an intrinsic length scale for the channel which could act as a length sensor during organ growth.

Authors: Oleksandr Ostrenko, Jochen Hampe, Lutz Brusch

Date Published: 1st Dec 2019

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

The Hedgehog (Hh) and Wnt/β-Catenin (Wnt) cascades are morphogen pathways whose pronounced influence on adult liver metabolism has been identified in recent years. How both pathways communicate and control liver metabolic functions are largely unknown. Detecting core components of Wnt and Hh signaling and mathematical modeling showed that both pathways in healthy liver act largely complementary to each other in the pericentral (Wnt) and the periportal zone (Hh) and communicate mainly by mutual repression. The Wnt/Hh module inversely controls the spatiotemporal operation of various liver metabolic pathways, as revealed by transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome analyses. Shifting the balance to Wnt (activation) or Hh (inhibition) causes pericentralization and periportalization of liver functions, respectively. Thus, homeostasis of the Wnt/Hh module is essential for maintaining proper liver metabolism and to avoid the development of certain metabolic diseases. With caution due to minor species-specific differences, these conclusions may hold for human liver as well.

Authors: Erik Kolbe, Susanne Aleithe, Christiane Rennert, Luise Spormann, Fritzi Ott, David Meierhofer, Robert Gajowski, Claus Stöpel, Stefan Hoehme, Michael Kücken, Lutz Brusch, Michael Seifert, Witigo von Schoenfels, Clemens Schafmayer, Mario Brosch, Ute Hofmann, Georg Damm, Daniel Seehofer, Jochen Hampe, Rolf Gebhardt, Madlen Matz-Soja

Date Published: 1st Dec 2019

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Bile, the central metabolic product of the liver, is transported by the bile canaliculi network. The impairment of bile flow in cholestatic liver diseases has urged a demand for insights into its regulation. Here, we developed a predictive 3D multi-scale model that simulates fluid dynamic properties successively from the subcellular to the tissue level. The model integrates the structure of the bile canalicular network in the mouse liver lobule, as determined by high-resolution confocal and serial block-face scanning electron microscopy, with measurements of bile transport by intravital microscopy. The combined experiment-theory approach revealed spatial heterogeneities of biliary geometry and hepatocyte transport activity. Based on this, our model predicts gradients of bile velocity and pressure in the liver lobule. Validation of the model predictions by pharmacological inhibition of Rho kinase demonstrated a requirement of canaliculi contractility for bile flow in vivo. Our model can be applied to functionally characterize liver diseases and quantitatively estimate biliary transport upon drug-induced liver injury.

Authors: Kirstin Meyer, Oleksandr Ostrenko, Georgios Bourantas, Hernan Morales-Navarrete, Natalie Porat-Shliom, Fabian Segovia-Miranda, Hidenori Nonaka, Ali Ghaemi, Jean-Marc Verbavatz, Lutz Brusch, Ivo Sbalzarini, Yannis Kalaidzidis, Roberto Weigert, Marino Zerial

Date Published: 1st Mar 2017

Publication Type: Not specified

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